The pharaoh who ruled Egypt was a tyrant who oppressed the descendants
of Jacob (pbuh), known as the children of Israel (Bani Israel). He used
every means to demean and disgrace them. They were kept in bondage and
forced to work for him for small wages or nothing. Under this system the
people obeyed and worshipped the pharaoh, and the ruling class carried out
his orders, thereby authorizing his tyranny and crazy whims.
The pharaoh wanted the people to obey him only, and to believe in the
gods of his invention. Perhaps, during that time, there were many classes
of people who did not believe in or practice polytheism; however, they
kept this to themselves and outwardly did as they were expected to do,
without revolting or revealing themselves to anyone.
Thus, successive dynasties came to Egypt and assumed that they were
gods or their representative or spokesmen.
Years passed, and a despotic king, who was adored by the Egyptians,
ruled Egypt. His king saw the children of Israel multiplying and
prospering. He heard them talking about a vague vision that one of Israel'
s sons would dethrone the pharaoh of Egypt. Perhaps this vision was only a
daydream that persisted within the hearts of the persecuted minority, or
perhaps it was a prophecy from their books.
Another tradition states that it was Pharaoh himself who had the
vision. Ibn 'Abbas narrated: "Pharaoh saw in his vision a fire, which came
from Jerusalem and burned the houses of the Egyptians, and all Copts, and
did not do harm to the children of Israel. When he woke up, he was
horrified. He then gathered his priests and magicians and asked them about
this vision. They said: "This means a boy will be born of them and the
Egyptian people will perish at his hands.' That is why Pharaoh commanded
that all male children of the children of Israel be killed."
Either way, this vision reached the ears of the Pharaoh. He then issued
a decree to slay any male child that would be born to the children of
Israel. This was carried out until the experts of economics said to
Pharaoh: "The aged of the children of Israel die and the young are
slaughtered. This will lead to their annihilation. As a result, Pharaoh
will lose the manpower of those who work for him, those whom he enslaves,
and their women whom he exploits. It is better to regulate this procedure
by initiating the following policy: males should be slaughtered in one
year but spared to live the next year." Pharaoh found that solution to be
Moses's mother was pregnant with Aaron (pbuh) in a year that boys were
spared; thus she gave birth to the child publicly and safely. During a
year in which boys were to be slain, she gave birth to Moses (pbuh); thus
his birth caused her much terror. She was afraid he would be slain, so she
nursed him secretly.
Allah the Almighty revealed: These are Verses of the manifest Book
(that makes clear truth from falsehood, good from evil, etc.). We recite
to you some of the news of Moses and Pharaoh in truth, for a people who
believe (those who believe in this Quran, and in the Oneness of Allah).
Verily, Pharaoh exalted himself in the land and made its people sects,
weakening (oppressing) a group (children of Israel) among them, killing
their sons, and letting their females live. Verily, he was of the
Mufsideen (those who commit great sins and crimes, oppressors, tyrants,
And we wished to do a favor to those who were weak (and oppressed) in
the land, and to make them rulers and to make them the inheritors, and to
establish them in the land, and We let Pharaoh and Haman and their hosts
receive from them that which they feared. And We inspired the mother of
Moses, saying: "Suckle him (Moses), but when you fear for him, then cast
him into the river and fear not, nor grieve. Verily! We shall bring him
back to you, and shall make him one of (Our) Messengers." (Ch 28: 2-7
No sooner had the divine revelation finished that she obeyed the sacred
and merciful call. She was commanded to make a basket for Moses. She
nursed him, put him into the basket, then went to the shore of the Nile
and threw it into the water. Her mother's heart, the most merciful one in
the world, grieved as she threw her son into the Nile. However, she was
aware that Allah was much more merciful to Moses than to her, that He
loved him more than her. Allah was his Lord and the Lord of the Nile.
Hardly had the basket touched the water of the Nile than Allah issued
His command to the waves to be calm and gentle while carrying the child
would one day be a prophet. She instructed her daughter to follow the
course of the basket and to report back to her. As the daughter followed
the floating basket along the riverbank, she found herself right in the
palace grounds and saw what was unfolding before her eyes.
The basket came to rest at the riverbank, which skirted the king's
palace. The palace servants found the basket with the baby and took it to
the Pharaoh and his queen. When the queen beheld the lovely infant, Allah
instilled in her a strong love for this baby. Pharaoh's wife was very
different from Pharaoh. He was a disbeliever; she was a believer. He was
cruel; she was merciful. He was a tyrant; she was delicate and
goodhearted. She was sad because she was infertile and had hoped to have a
son. Hardly had she held the baby than she kissed him.
Pharaoh was much amazed when he saw his wife hugging this baby to her
breast. He was much astonished because his wife was weeping with joy,
something he had never seen her do before. She requested her husband: "Let
me keep the baby and let him be a son to us."
Almighty Allah said; Then the household of Pharaoh picked him up, that
he might become for them an enemy and a cause of grief. Verily! Pharaoh,
Haman, and their hosts were sinners. And the wife of Pharaoh said; "A
comfort of the eye for me and for you. Kill him not, perhaps he maybe of a
benefit to us, or we may adopt him as a son." And they perceived not (the
result of that). (Ch 28:9 Quran)
The queen summoned a few wet nurses to suckle the baby Moses, but he
would not take any of their breasts. The queen was distressed and sent for
more wet nurses. Moses's sister was also worried, as her baby brother was
without milk for a long time. Seeing the queen's anxiety, she blurted that
she knew jut the mother who would suckle the child affectionately. They
asked her why she was following the floating basket. She said she did so
out of curiosity. Her excuse sounded reasonable, so they believed her.
They ordered her to rush and fetch the woman she was talking about. Her
mother also was waiting with a heavy heart, worried about the fate of her
baby. Just then her daughter rushed in with the good news. Her heart
lifted and she lost no time in reaching the palace.
Allah the Almighty narrated: And the heart of the mother of Moses
became empty (from every thought, except the thought of Moses). She was
very near to disclose his (case, the child is her son), had We not
strengthened her heart (with Faith), so that she might remain as one of
the believers. And she said to his (Moses's) sister: "Follow him." So she
(his sister) watched him from a far place secretly, while they perceived
And We had already forbidden (other) foster suckling mothers for him,
until she (his sister came up and ) said: "Shall I direct you to a
household who will rear him for you, and sincerely they will look after
him in a good manner?"
So did We restore him to his mother, that she might be delighted, and
that she might not grieve, nor that she might know that the promise of
Allah is true. But most of them know not. (Ch 28:10-13 Quran)
As the child was put to her breast, he immediately started suckling.
Pharaoh was astonished and asked; "Who are you? This child has refused to
take any other breast but yours."
Had she told the truth, Pharaoh would have known that the child was an
Israelite and would have killed Moses instantly. However, Allah gave her
inner strength and she replied: "I am a woman of sweet milk and sweet
smell,and no child refuses me." This answer satisfied Pharaoh.
Fronward, she was appointed as Moses's wet nurse. She continued to
breast-feed him for a long time. When he was bigger and was weaned, she
was allowed the privilege of visiting him. Moses was raised in the palace
as a prince.
And when he attained his full strength, and was perfect (in manhood),
We bestowed on him Hukman (Prophethood, right judgment of the affairs) and
religious knowledge (of the religion of his forefathers, Islamic
Monotheism). And thus do We reward the Muhsineen (good-doers)." (Ch 28:14
Allah had granted Moses (pbuh) good health, strength, knowledge, and
wisdom. The weak and oppressed turned to him for protection and
One day in the main city, he saw two men fighting. One was an
Israelite, who was being beaten by the other, an Egyptian. On seeing
Moses, the Israelite begged him for help. Moses became involved in the
dispute and, in a state of anger, struck a heavy blow on the Egyptian, who
died on the spot. Upon realizing that he had killed a human being, Moses's
heart was filled with deep sorrow, and immediately he begged Allah for
He had not intended to kill the man. He pleaded with Almighty Allah to
forgive him, and he felt a sense of peace filling his whole being.
Thereafter Moses began to show more patience and sympathy towards
The next day he saw the same Israelite involved in another fight. Moses
went to him and said: "You seem to be a quarrelsome fellow. You have a new
quarrel with one person or another each day." Fearing that Moses might
strike him, the Israelite warned Moses: "Would you kill me as you killed
the wretch yesterday?"
The Egyptian with whom the Israelite was fighting overheard this remark
and reported Moses to the authorities. Soon thereafter, as Moses was
passing through the city, a man approached and alerted him: "O Moses, the
chiefs have taken counsel against you. You are to be tried and killed. I
would advise you to escape."
Moses knew that the penalty for killing an Egyptian was death. Allah
the Exalted recounted: And he entered the city at a time of unawareness of
its people, and he found there two men fighting, one of his party (his
religion, from the children of Israel), and the other of his foes. The man
of his own party asked him for help against his foe, so Moses struck him
with his fist and killed him. He said, "This is of Satan's doing, verily,
he is a plain misleading enemy."
He said: "My Lord! Verily, I have wronged myself, so forgive me." Then
He forgave him. Verily, He is the Oft-Forgiving, the Most Merciful.
He said: "My Lord! For that with which You have favored me, I will
never more be a helper for the Mujrimeen (criminals, disobedient to Allah,
polytheists, sinners, etc.)!"
So he became afraid, looking about in the city (waiting as to what will
be the result of his crime of killing), when behold, the man who had
sought his help the day before, called for his help again. Moses said to
him: "Verily, you are a plain misleader!" Then when he decided to seize
the man who was an enemy to both of them, the man said: "O Moses! Is it
your intention to kill me as you killed a man yesterday? Your aim is
nothing but to become a tyrant in the land, and not to be one of those who
And there came a man running, from the farthest end of the city. He
said: "O Moses! Verily, the chiefs are taking counsel together about you,
to kill you, so escape. Truly, I am to you of those who give sincere
So he escaped from there, looking about in a state of fear. He said:
"My Lord! Save me from the people who are Zalimeen (polytheists, and
wrong-doers)!" (Ch 28:15-21 Quran)
Moses left Egypt in a hurry without going to Pharaoh's palace or
changing his clothes. Nor was he prepared for traveling. He did not have a
beast of burden upon which to ride, and he was not in a caravan. Instead,
he left as soon as the believer came and warned him of Pharaoh's
He traveled in the direction of the country of Midian, which was the
nearest inhabited land between Syria and Egypt. His only companion in this
hot desert was Allah, and his only provision was piety. There was not a
single root to pick to lessen his hunger. The hot sand burned the soles of
his feet. However, fearing pursuit by Pharaoh's men, he forced himself to
continue on. He traveled for eight nights, hiding during the day. After
crossing the main desert, he reached a watering hole outside Midian where
shepherds were watering their flocks.
No sooner had Moses reached the Midian than he threw himself under a
tree to rest. He suffered from hunger and fatigue. The soles of his feet
felt as if they were worn out from hard walking on sand and rocks and from
the dust. He did not have any money to buy a new pair of sandals, nor to
buy food or drink. Moses noticed a band of shepherds watering their sheep.
He went to the spring, where he saw two young women preventing their sheep
from mixing with the others.
Moses sensed that the women were in need of help. Forgetting his
thirst, he drew nearer to them and asked if he could help them in any
The older sister said: "We are waiting until the shepherds finish
watering their sheep, then we will water ours."
Moses asked again: "Why are you waiting?"
The younger one: "We cannot push men."
Moses was surprised that women were shepherding, as only men were
supposed to do it. It is hard and tiresome work, and one needs to be on
the alert. Moses asked: "Why are you shepherding?"
The younger sister said: "Our father is an old man; his health is too
poor for him to go outdoors for pasturing sheep."
Moses (pbuh) said: "I will water the sheep for you."
When Moses approached the water, he saw that the shepherds had put over
the mouth of the spring an immense rock that could only be moved by ten
men. Moses embraced the rock and lifted it out of the spring's mouth, the
veins of his neck and hands standing out as he did so. Moses was certainly
strong. He watered their sheep and put the rock back in its place.
He returned to sit in the shade of the tree. At this moment he realized
that he had forgotten to drink. His stomach was sunken because of hunger.
Almighty Allah described this event: And when he arrived at the water
of Midian (Midyan) he found there a group of men watering their flocks,
and besides them he found two women who were keeping back their flocks. He
said: "What is the matter with you?" They said: "We cannot water (our
flocks) until the shepherds take their flocks. And our father is a very
So he watered their flocks for them, then he turned back to shade, and
said: "My Lord! Truly, I am in need of whatever good that You bestow on
me!" (Ch 28:22-24 Quran)
The young ladies returned home earlier than usual, which surprised
their father. They related the incident at the spring which was the reason
that they were back early. Their father sent one of his daughters to
invite the stranger to his home. Bashfully, the woman approached Moses and
delivered the message. "My father is grateful for what you have done for
us. He invites you to our home so that he may thank you personally."
Moses welcomed this invitation and accompanied the maiden to her
father. Moses could see that they lived comfortably as a happy and
peaceful household. He introduced himself and told the old man about the
misfortune that he had befallen him and had compelled him to flee from
Egypt. The old man comforted him: "Fear not, you have escaped from the
Moses's gentle behavior was noticed by the father and his daughters.
The king man invited him to stay with them. Moses felt at home with this
happy household, for they were friendly and feared Allah.
One of the daughters suggested to her father that he employ Moses, as
he was strong and trustworthy. They needed someone like him, especially at
the water hole, which was visited by ruffians.
The father asked her how she could be sure of his trustworthiness in
such a short time. She replied: "When I bade him to follow me to our home,
he insisted that I walk behind him so he would not observe my form (to
avoid sexual attraction)."
The old man was pleased to hear this. He approached Moses and said: "I
wish to marry you toone omy daughters on condition that you agree to work
for me for a period of eight years."
This offer suited Moses well, for being a stranger in this country, he
would soon have to search for shelter, and work. Moses married the
Midianite's daughter and looked after the old man's animals for ten long
Almighty Allah recounted: Then there came to him one of the two
women, walking shyly. She said: "Verily, my father calls you that he may
reward you for having watered our flocks for us." So when he came to him
and narrated the story, he said; "Fear you not. You have escaped from the
people who are Zalimeen (polytheists, disbeliveers, and wrong-doers)." And
said one of them (the two women): "O my father! Hire him! Verily, the best
of men for you to hire is the strong, the trustworthy." He said: "I intend
to wed one of these two daughters of mine to you, on condition that you
serve me for eight years, but if you complete ten years, it will be a
favor from you. But I intend not to place you under a difficulty. If Allah
wills, you will find me one of the righteous." He (Moses) said: "That is
settled between me and you whichever of the two terms I fulfill, there
will be no injustice to me, and Allah is Surety over what we say." ( Ch
Time passed, and he lived in seclusion far from his family and his
people. This period of ten years was of importance in his life. It was a
period of major preparation. Certainly Moses's mind was absorbed in the
stars every night. He followed the sunrise and the sunset every day. He
pondered on the plant and how it splits and soil and appears thereafter.
He contemplated water and how the earth is revived by it and flourishes
after its death.
Of course, he was immersed in the Glorious Book of Allah, open to the
insight and heart. He was immersed in the existence of Allah. All these
became latent within him. The religion of Moses (pbuh) was the same as
that of Jacob (pbuh), which was Islamic monotheism. His forefather was
Jacob (pbuh) the grandson of Abraham (pbuh). Moses (pbuh), therefore, was
one of the descendants of Abraham (pbuh) and every prophet who came after
Abraham was one of Abraham's successors. In addition to physical
preparation, there was a similar spiritual preparation. It was made in
complete seclusion, in the middle of the desert, and in the places of
pasture. Silence was his way of life, and seclusion was his vehicle. Allah
the Almighty prepared for His prophet the tools he would need later on to
righteously bear the commands of Allah the Exalted.
One day after the end of this period, a vague homesickness arose in
Moses's heart. He wanted to return to Egypt. He was fast and firm in
making his decision, telling his wife: "Tomorrow we shall leave for
Egypt." His wife said to herself. "There are a thousand dangers in
departing that have not yet been revealed." However, she obeyed her
Moses himself did not know the secret of the quick and sudden decision
to return to Egypt. After all, he had fled from their ten years ago with a
price on his head. Why should he go back now? Did he look forward to
seeing his mother and brother? Did he think of visiting Pharaoh's wife who
had raised him and who loved him as if she were his mother?
No one knows what went through Moses's mind when he returned to Egypt.
All we know is that a mute obedience to Allah's destinies impelled him to
make a decision and he did. These supreme destinies steered his steps
towards a matter of great importance.
Moses left Midian with his family and traveled through the desert until
he reached Mount Sinai. There Moses discovered that he had lost his way.
He sought Allah's direction and was shown the right course. At nightfall
they reached Mount Tur. Moses noticed a fire in the distance. "I shall
fetch a firebrand to warm us."
As he neared the fire, he heard a sonorous voice calling him: "O Moses,
I am Allah, the Lord of the Universe." Moses was bewildered and looked
around. He again heard the strange voice. "And what is in you right hand,
Shivering, Moses answered: "This is my staff on which I lean, and with
which I beat down branches for my sheep, and for which I find other uses."
(This question was asked so that Moses' attention would focus on the staff
and to prepare him for the miracle which was to happen. This was the
beginning of Moses's mission as a prophet -pbuh).
The same voice commanded him: "Throw down your staff!" He did so, and
at once the staff became a wriggling snake. Moses turned to run, but the
voice again addressed him: "Fear not and grasp it; We shall return it to
its former state." The snake changed back into his staff. Moses's fear
subsided and was replaced by peace, for he realized that he was witnessing
Next, Allah commanded him to thrust his hand into his robe at the
armpit. When he pulled it out, the hand had a brilliant shine. Allah then
commanded Moses; "You have two signs from Your Lord; go to Pharaoh and his
chiefs, for they are an evil gang and have transgressed all bounds."
However, Moses feared that he would be arrested by Pharaoh, so he
turned to Allah saying: "My Lord! I have killed a man among them and I
fear that they will kill me."
Allah assured him of his safety and set his heart at rest.
Almighty Allah narrated this event: And has there come to you the story
of Moses? When he saw a fire, he said to his family: "Wait! Verily, I have
seen a fire, perhaps I can bring you some burning brand therefrom, or find
some guidance at the fire."
And when he came to it the fire, he was called by name: "O Moses!
Verily! I am your Lord! So take off your shoes, you are in the sacred
valley, Tuwa. And I have chosen you. So listen to that which is inspired
to you. Verily! I am Allah! La ilaha illa Ana (none has the right to be
worshipped but I), so worship Me, and offer prayers perfectly, for My
Remembrance. Verily, the Hour is coming - and My Will is to keep it hidden
- that every person may be rewarded for that which he strives. Therefore,
let the one who believes not therein (in the Day of Resurrection,
Reckoning, Paradise and Hell etc) but follows his own lusts, divert your
therefrom lest you perish. And what is that in your right hand, O
He said: "This is my stick, whereon I lean, and wherewith I beat down
branches for my sheep and wherein I find other uses."
Allah said: "Cast it down, O Moses!"
He cast it down, and behold! It was a snake, moving quickly.
Allah said: "Grasp it, and fear not, We shall return it to its former
state, and press your right hand to your left side, it will come forth
white and shining, and without any disease as another sign, that We may
show you some of Our Greater Signs.
"Go To Pharaoh! Verily! He has transgressed (all bounds in disbelief
and disobedience, and has behaved as an arrogant, and as a tyrant)."
Moses said: "O my Lord! Open for me my chest (grant me self-confidence,
contentment, and boldness). And ease my task for me; and make loose the
knot (the defect) from my tongue, (remove the incorrectness of my speech)
that they understand my speech, and appoint for me a helper from my
family, Aaron, my brother; increase my strength with him, and let him
share my task (of conveying Allah's Message and Prophethood), and we may
glorify You much, and remember You much, Verily! You are of us Ever a
Allah said: "You are granted your request, O Moses! And indeed We
conferred a favor on you another time before. When We inspired your mother
with that which We inspired, saying: "Put him (the child) into the Tabut
(a box or a case or a chest) and put him into the river (Nile), and then
the river shall cast it up on the bank, and there, an enemy of Mine and an
enemy of his shall take him.' And I endured you with love from Me, in
order that you maybe brought up under My Eye, when your sister went and
said; "Shall I show you one who will nurse him?' So We restored you to
your mother, that she might cool her eyes and she should not grieve. Then
you did kill a man, but We saved you from a great distress and tried you
with a heavy trial. Then you stayed a number of years witthe people of
Midian. Then you came here according to the term which I ordained (for
you), O Moses!
"And I have Istana'tuka (chosen you for My Inspiration and My Message)
for Myself. Go you and your brother with My Ayat (proofs, lessons, verses,
evidences, signs, revelations, etc), and do not, you both, slacken and
become weak in My Remembrance.
"Go, both of you, to Pharaoh, verily, he has transgressed all bounds in
disbelief and disobedience and behaved as an arrogant and as a tyrant. And
speak to him mildly, perhaps he may accept admonition or fear Allah."
They said: "Our Lord! Verily! We fear lest he should hasten to punish
us or lest he should transgress all bounds against us."
He (Allah) said: "Fear not, Verily! I am with you both, Hearing and
Seeing. So go you both to him, and say: "Verily, we are Messengers of your
Lord, so let the children of Israel go with us, and torment them not;
indeed, we have come with a sign from your Lord! And peace will be upon
him who follows the guidance! Truly, it has been revealed to us that the
torment will be for him who denies (believes not in the Oneness of Allah,
and in His Messengers, etc), and turns away' (from the truth, and
obedience of Allah)." (Ch 20:9-48 Quran).
Moses (pbuh) and Aaron (pbuh) went together to Pharaoh and
delivered their message. Moses spoke to him about Allah, His mercy and His
Paradise and about the obligations of monotheism and His worship.
Pharaoh listened to Moses' speech with disdain. He thought that Moses
was crazy because he dared to question his supreme position. Then he
raised his hand and asked: "What do you want?"
Moses answered: "I want you to send the children of Israel with
Pharaoh asked: "Why should I send them, as they are my slaves?"
Moses replied: "They are the slaves of Allah, Lord of the Worlds."
Pharaoh then inquired sarcastically if his name was Moses. Moses said
"Are you not the Moses whom we picked up from the Nile as a helpless
baby? Are you not the Moses whom we reared in this palace, who ate and
drank from our provisions and whom our wealth showered with charity? Are
you not the Moses who is a fugitive, the killer of an Egyptian man, if my
memory does not betray me? It is said that killing is an act of disbelief.
Therefore, you were a disbeliever when you killed. You are a fugitive from
justice and you come to speak to me! What were you talking about Moses, I
Moses knew that Pharaoh's mentioning his past, his upbringing, and his
receiving Pharaoh's charity was Pharaoh's way of threatening him. Moses
ignored his sarcasm and explained that he was not a disbeliever when he
killed the Egyptian, he only went astray and Allah the Almighty had not
yet given him the revelation at that time. He made Pharaoh understand that
he fled from Egypt because he was afraid of their revenge upon him, even
though the killing was an accident. He informed him that Allah had granted
him forgiveness and made him one of the messengers.
Allah the Almighty revealed to us part of the dialogue between Moses
(pbuh) and Pharaoh: Allah said: "Nay! Go you both with Our Signs, Verily!
We shall be with you, listening. And when you both come to Pharaoh, say:
"We are the Messengers of the Lord of the Alamin (mankind, jinn and all
that exists), and So allow the children of Israel to go with us.""
Pharaoh said to Moses: "Did we not bring you up among us as a child ?
And you did dwell many years of your life with us. And you did your deed
which you did (the crime of killing a man) and you are one of the
Moses said: "I did it then, when I was an ignorant (as regards my Lord
and His Message). So I fled from you when I feared you. But my Lord has
granted me Hukman (religious knowledge, right judgments of the affairs and
Prophethood), and appointed me as one of the Messengers. And this is the
past favor with which you reproach me, and that you have enslaved the
children of Israel."
Pharaoh said: "And what is the Lord of the Alamin (mankind, jinn and
all that exists)?"
Moses replied: "Lord of the heavens, and the earth, and all that is
between them, if you seek to be convinced with certainty."
Pharaoh said to those around: "Do you not hear what he says?"
Moses said: "Your Lord and the Lord of your ancient fathers!"
Pharaoh said: "Verily, your Messenger who has been sent to you is a
Moses said: "Lord of the east, and the west, and all that is between
them, if you did but understand!"
Pharaoh said: "If you choose an ilah (a god) other than me, I will
certainly put you among the prisoners."
Moses said: "Even if I bring you something manifest (and
Pharaoh said: "Bring it forth then, if you are of the truthful!" (Ch
The degree of the conflict expressed in this dialogue reached its apex;
thus, the tone of dialogue changed. Moses used a convincing intellectual
argument against Pharaoh. However, Pharaoh escaped from the circle of
dialogue based on the logic and began a dialogue of another type, a type
which Moses could not bear to follow; a dialogue of menacing and
threatening. Pharaoh deliberately adopted the style of the absolute ruler.
He asked Moses how he dared to worship Allah! Did he not know that Pharaoh
was a god?
After declaring his divinity, Pharaoh asked Moses how he dared to
worship another god. The punishment for this crime was imprisonment. It
was not permitted for anyone to worship anyone other than the Pharaoh.
Moses understood that the intellectual arguments did not succeed. The calm
dialogue was converted from sarcasm to mentioning charity, then to scorn,
then to the threat of imprisonment.
Moses said: "Even if I bring you something manifest and convincing."
Pharaoh said; "Bring it forth, then, if you are of the truthful!" So Moses
threw his stick, and behold, it was a serpent, manifest. And he drew out
his hand, and behold, it was white to all beholders! (Ch 26:30-33