line decor

JALALIA MOSQUE AND ISLAMIC EDUCATION CENTRE
Charity Registration No:1119082

line decor

  

   

Biography Prophets (PBUH)

 
 

(Peace and blessings of Allah be upon him).
Prophet Muhammad (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) was born in 570 CE in Makkah (Bakka,  Ummal qurah). His father, Abdullah, died before his birth. His mother died when he was six years old. He was raised by his grandfather 'Abd al Muttalib until the age of eight, and after his grandfather’s death by Abu Talib.

As a businessman (Peace and blessings of Allah be upon him)
Under the guardianship of Abu Talib, Muhammad (s) began to earn a living as a businessman and a trader. At the age of twelve, he accompanied Abu Talib with a merchant caravan as far as Bostra in Syria. Muhammad (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) was popularly known as ‘al-Ameen’ for his unimpeachable character by the Makkans and visitors alike. The title Al-Ameen means the Honest, the Reliable and the Trustworthy, and it signified the highest standard of moral and public life.

Married to Khadija
Upon hearing of Muhammad’s impressive credentials, Khadijah (may Allah be pleased with her), a rich merchant widow, asked Muhammad (s) to take some merchandise for trade to Syria. Soon after this trip when he was twenty-five, Khadijah (may Allah be pleased with her ), proposed marriage to Muhammad(peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) through a relative. Muhammad (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) accepted the proposal. At that time, Khadijah was forty years old widow.

Progeny
Muhammad and Khadijah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) were the parents of six children - four daughters and two sons. His first son Qasim died at the age of two. He was nicknamed Abul Qasim, meaning the father of Qasim. His second son Abdullah died in infancy. Abdullah was also called affectionately as ‘Tayyab’ and ‘Tahir’ because he was born after Muhammad’s prophethood. The four daughters were: Zainab,(may Allah be pleased with her), Ruqayyah, (may Allah be pleased with her), Umm Kulthum,(may Allah be pleased with her), and Fatimah(may Allah be pleased with her).

Revealing the Qur'an
Muhammad (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) was forty when he received the first revolution from the Archangel Jibril (Gabriel). On this first appearance, Gabriel (as) said to Muhammad,(peace and blessings of Allah be upon him). "Iqraa," meaning Read or Recite. Muhammad replied, "I cannot read," as he had not received any formal education and did not know how to read or write. The Angel Gabriel then embraced him until he reached the limit of his endurance and after releasing said: "Iqraa." Muhammad’s answer was the same as before. Gabriel repeated the embrace for the third time, asked him to repeat after him and said: "Recite in the name of your Lord who created! He created man from that which clings. Recite; and thy Lord is most Bountiful, He who has taught by the pen, taught man what he knew not."
These revelations are the first five verses of Surah al alaqu (chapter) 96 of the Qur’an.
Gabriel (as) visited the Prophet as commanded by Allah revealing Ayat (meaning signs, loosely referred to as verses) in Arabic over a period of twenty-three years. The Prophet’s sayings, actions, and approvals are recorded separately in collections known as Hadith.

Preaching
The mission of Prophet Muhammad (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) was to restore the worship of the One True God, the creator and sustainer of the universe, as taught by Prophet Ibrahim and all Prophets of God, and to demonstrate and complete the laws of moral, ethical, legal, and social conduct and all other matters of significance for the humanity at large.
The first few people who followed this message were: his cousin Ali, his servant Zayd ibn Harithah, his friend Abu Bakr and his wife and daughters. They accepted Islam by testifying that:
"There is no Deity (worthy of worship) except Allah (The One True God) and Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah."
Islam means peace by submission and obedience to the Will and Commandments of God and those who accept Islam are called Muslims, meaning those who have accepted the message of peace by submission to God.

 The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) was directed by a recent revelation to start preaching Islam to everyone. He then began to recite revelations to people in public and invite them to Islam. The Quraish, leaders of Makkah, took his preaching with hostility. The most hostile and closest to the prophet(peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) Was his uncle Abu Lahab and his wife. Initially, they and other leaders of Quraish tried to bribe him with money and power including an offer to make him king if he were to abandon his message. When this did not work, they tried to convince his uncle Abu Talib to accept the best young man of Makkah in place of Muhammad and to allow them to kill Muhammad. His uncle tried to persuade the Prophet to stop preaching but the Prophet said: "O uncle, if they were to put the sun in my right hand and the moon in my left hand to stop me from preaching Islam, I would never stop. I will keep preaching until Allah makes Islam prevail or I die."

Ban for three years
The Quraish made life  more difficult for the Prophet by implementing total ban on contact with the Prophet’s family (Bani Hashim and Muttalib). The ban lasted for three years without the desired effect. Just before the ban was lifted, the Prophet was contacted by the leaders of Quraish to agree to a compromise under which they should all practice both religions (i.e., Islam and Idolatry). Upon hearing this, the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) recited a revolution (Chapter 109) he had just received and which ends with the words: "
For you your religion and for me mine." The ban was lifted when leaders of Quraish discovered that their secret document on the terms of ban, which they had stored in Ka’bah, was eaten by worms and all that was left were the opening words ‘In Your name, O Allah.’

The year of Sorrow
Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) got more personal sorrow when he lost his beloved wife Khadijah(may Allah be pleased with her), and uncle Abu Talib soon after the ban was lifted.
After Khadijah's(may Allah be pleased with her), death in 620 CE, the Prophet married a widowed Muslim woman, Sawdah (may Allah be pleased with her ), and married to A’ishah,(may Allah be pleased with her), the daughter of his dear companion Abu Bakr.(may Allahbe pleased with him), She joined the Prophet in Medinah, completing the marriage contract. Sawdah and A’ishah(may Allahbe pleased with her), were the only wives until he was fifty-six years old.

Journey to Taif
After the death of his uncle Abu Talib, the Prophet(peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) went to Taif (about 50 miles east, southeast of Makkah) to seek their protection. They flatly refused and mocked at him, and severely injured him by inciting their children to throw stones at him. Gabriel (as) visited the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) here suggesting that the angels were ready to destroy the town if he were to ask Allah for the punishment. Nevertheless, the Prophet declined and prayed for future generations of Taif to accept Islam [Taif].

Israa and Meraaj
Soon after the terrible disappointment at Ta’if, the prophet(peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) experienced the events of al-Israa and al-Meraaj (621 CE). In the Al-Israa, Gabriel (as) took the Prophet from the sacred Mosque near Ka’bah to the furthest (al-Aqsa) mosque in Jerusalem in a very short time in the latter part of a night. Here, Prophet Muhammad met with previous Prophets (Abraham, Moses, Jesus and others) and he led them in prayer. After this, in Al-Miraj, the Prophet was taken up to heavens to show the signs of God [More... the Dome of the Rock]. It was on this journey that five daily prayers were prescribed. The event of Israa and Miraaj is mentioned in the Qur’an - the first verse of Chapter 17 entitled ‘The Children of Israel.’

Igration to Medinah (Hijra)
In 622 CE, the leaders of the Quraish decided to kill the Prophet and they developed a plan in which one man was chosen from each of the Quraish tribes and they were to attack the Prophet simultaneously. Gabriel informed the Prophet of the plan and instructed him to leave Makkah immediately. The Prophet, after making arrangements to return the properties entrusted to him by several nonbelievers, left with Abu Bakr in the night he was to be assassinated. They went south of Makkah to a mountain cave of Thawr [see Qur'an 9:40], and after staying three nights they traveled north to Yathrib (Medinah) about three hundred miles from Makkah. Upon discovery of his escape, the leaders of Quraish put up a reward of one hundred camels on him, dead or alive. In spite of all their best scouts and search parties, Allah protected the Prophet and he arrived safely in Quba, a suburb of Medinah [Qur'an 28:85]. This event is known as the ‘Hijra’ (migration) and the Islamic calendar begins with this event.
The people of Medinah greeted him with great,

One by one those Muslims (men and women) of Makkah who were not physically restrained, and who could make a secret exit, left for Medinah leaving behind their properties and homes.
Quba Mosque when the prophet arrived Quba he built  a Mosque, and It was the first mosque to be built in Medina. Allah, the Exalted, praised this Mosque and those who maintained it, "There is a Mosque whose foundation was laid from the first day on Piety; it is more worthy of thy standing forth [for Prayer] therein. In it are men who love to be purified, and Allah loves those who make themselves pure." There upon, It has been narrated that the Prophet ( peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) used to ride his camel and visit Quba' every Saturday and Monday. The Prophet ( peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said, "Whoever performs ablution at home, then comes to Quba' Mosque to perform Prayer there in, will get the reward as for `Umrah."

Treaty Arabs and Jews
To insure the peace and tranquility, the Prophet proposed a treaty defining terms of conduct for all inhabitants of Medinah. It was ratified by all - Muslims, non-Muslim Arabs and Jews. After his emigration to Medinah, the enemies of  Islam increased their assault from all sides. The Battles of Badr , Uhud and Allies (Trench) were fought near or around Medinah. In these battles until the year 627 CE, the nonbelievers with encouragement from Jews and other Arabian tribes attacked the Prophet and Muslim community.

Married several women
The Muslims while defending their city and religion lost many men, which resulted in many widowed Muslim women and numerous orphaned children. In these circumstances, Prophet Muhammad (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) married several women during fifty-sixth year up to the sixtieth year of his life. These are Hafsah bint Umar abn al- Khattab,(may Allah be pleased with him), Zenab bint Khuzema,(may Allah be pleased with him), Zenab bit Jahash,(may Allah be pleased with him), Memuna bint Hares, Ume Habibah (may Allah be pleased with him),
The Prophet married Umm Salamah (may Allah be pleased with him), in 626 CE. Her husband had died of wounds inflicted in the Battle of Uhud (625 CE). Two of his wives, Juwayriah and Safiyah,(may Allah be pleased with him), were prisoners of war. Both belonged to the family of the chief of their tribes and were set free by the Prophet; they then gladly accepted Islam and were pleased to become the Prophet’s wives. The Prophet's wives, called the "Mothers of the Believers, All his wives, especially 'Aishah, transmitted many ahadith (sayings, deeds, and actions) from Prophet Muhammad (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him).

 Al-Hudaybiyah
A year after the Battle of Allies (Trench), the Prophet and fifteen hundred of his companions left for Makkah to perform the annual pilgrimage (628 CE). They were barred from approaching the city at Hudaybiyah, where after some negotiations a treaty was signed allowing for them to come next year. A few weeks after Hudaybiyah the Prophet sent letters to several kings and rulers.

Fath Makkah
About two years later at the end of 629 CE, the Quraish violated the terms of the Treaty of Hudaybiyah.
The Prophet, marched to Makkah with an army consisting of three thousand Muslims of Medinah and Muslims from Other Arab communities that joined him on the way totaling ten thousand Muslims. Before entering the city he sent word to citizens of Makkah that anyone who remained in his home, or in Abu Sufyan’s home, or in the Ka’bah would be safe. The army entered Makkah without fighting and the Prophet went directly to the Ka’bah. He magnified Allah for the triumphant entry in the Holy city.
 The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) pointed at each idol with a stick he had in his hand and said:

 

Truth has come and Falsehood has vanished surely falsehood is ever bound to vanish.[Qur'an 17:81].

Forgiveness
The people of the city expected general slaughter in view of their persecution and torture of Muslims for the past twenty years. While standing by the Ka'bah, the Prophet (s) promised clemency for the Makkans, stating: "O Quraish, what do you think that I am about to do with you?" They replied, "Good. You are a noble brother, son of a noble brother." The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) forgave them all saying:
"I will treat you as Prophet Yousuf (Joseph) treated his brothers. There is no reproach against you. Go to your homes, and you are all free."
One night in March 630 CE, Angel Gabriel visited the Prophet and addressed him as: "O father of Ibrahim." A few hours later, the Prophet received the news of the birth of his son from his wife Mariah, and the Prophet named him Ibrahim. He was the only child born after the six children from Prophet’s first wife Khadijah. Ibrahim died when he was ten months old.

Hajja tul widah
 The Prophet performed his first and last pilgrimage in 632 CE. One hundred twenty-thousand men and women performed pilgrimage that year with him. The Prophet received the last revelation during this pilgrimage. Two months later, Prophet Muhammad (s) fell ill and after several days died on Monday, 12 Rabi al-Awwal, the eleventh year after Hijra (June 8, 632 CE) in Medinah. He is buried in the same place where he died.

 

 
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Jalalia Mosque and Islamic Education Centre
Machen Place • Riverside  • Cardiff  • CF11 6ER  • United Kingdom
tel: 029 2022 1309 
e-mail:info@jalaliamosque.org.uk