The Story of Adam Allah the Almighty revealed: "And (remember) when
your Lord said to the angels: "Verily, I am going to place (mankind)
generations after generations on earth." They said: 'Will You place
therein those who will make mischief therein and shed blood, - while we
glorify You with praises and thanks (Exalted be You above all that they
associate with You as partners) and sanctify You." He (Allah) said: "I
know that which you do not know." And He taught Adam all the names (of
everything), then He showed them to the angels and said: "Tell Me the
names of these if you are truthful." They (angels) said: "Glory be to You,
we have no knowledge except what You have taught us. Verily, it is You,
the All-Knower, the All-Wise." He said: "O Adam! Inform them of their
names," and when he had informed them of their names, He said: "Did I not
tell you that I know the Ghaib (unseen) in the heavens and the earth, and
I know what you reveal and what you have been concealing?" And
when We said to the angels: "Prostrate yourselves before
Adam." And they prostrated except Iblis, he refused and was proud and was
one of the disbelievers (disobedient to Allah)." And We said: "O Adam!
Dwell you and your wife in the Paradise and eat both of you freely with
pleasure and delight of things therein as wherever you will, but come not
near this tree or you both will be of the Zalimeen (wrong-doers).
Then the Satan made them slip there from (the Paradise), and got them out
from that in which they were. We said: "Get you down, all, with enmity
between yourselves. On earth will be a dwelling place for you and an
enjoyment for a time." Then Adam received from his Lord Words. And his
Lord pardoned him (accepted his repentance). Verily, He is the One Who
forgives (accepts repentance), the Most Merciful. We said: "Get down all
of you from this place (the Paradise), then whenever there comes to you
Guidance from Me, and whoever follows My Guidance, there shall be no fear
on them, nor shall they grieve. But those who disbelieve and belie Our
Ayat (proofs, evidences, verses, lessons, signs, revelations, etc.) such
are the dwellers of the Fire, they shall abide therein forever.""
Surah 2: 30-39 Almighty Allah also revealed:
"And surely, We created
you (your father Adam) and then gave you shape (the noble shape of a human
being), then We told the angels, "Prostrate to Adam", and they prostrated,
except Iblis, he refused to be of those who prostrate. (Allah) said: "What
prevented you (O Iblis) that you did not prostrate, when I commanded you?"
(Iblis) said: "I am better than him (Adam), You created me from fire, and
him You created from clay." (Allah) said: "O Iblis, get down from this
(Paradise), it is not for you to be arrogant here. Get out, for you are of
those humiliated and disgraced." (Iblis) said: "Allow me respite till the
Day they are raised up (i.e. The Day of Resurrection)." (Allah) said: "You
are of those allowed respite."
(Iblis) said: "Because You have sent me
astray, surely I will sit in wait against them (human beings) on Your
Straight Path. Then I will come to them from before them and behind them,
from their right and from their left, and You will not find most of them
as thankful ones (i.e. they will not be dutiful to You)." (Allah) said (to
Iblis): "Get out from this (Paradise) disgraced and expelled. Whoever of
them (mankind) will follow you, then surely I will fill Hell with you
all." "And O Adam! Dwell you and your wife in Paradise, and eat thereof as
you both wish, but approach not this tree otherwise you both will be of
the Zalimeen (unjust and wrong-doers)." Then Satan whispered suggestions
to them both in order to uncover that which was hidden from them of their
private parts (before); he said: "Your Lord did not forbid you this tree
save you should become angels or become of the immortals."
(Satan) swore by Allah to them both (saying): "Verily, I am one of the
sincere well-wishers for you both." So he misled them with deception. Then
when they tasted of the tree, that which was hidden from them of their
shame (private parts) became manifest to them and they began to stick
together the leaves of Paradise over themselves (in order to cover their
shame). And their Lord called out to them (saying): "Did I not forbid you
that tree and tell you: Verily, Satan is an open enemy unto you?" They
said: "Our Lord! We have wronged ourselves. If You forgive us not, and
bestow not upon us Your Mercy, we shall certainly be of the losers."
Allah said: "Get down, one of you an enemy to the other (i.e. Adam,
Eve, and Satan, etc.). On earth will be a dwelling-place for you and an
enjoyment, -for a time." He said: "Therein you shall live, and therein you
shall die, and from it you shall be brought out (i.e., resurrected). "
Surah 7: 11-25
We imagine when Allah the Almighty decided to
create Adam: He addressed His angels and told them to prostrate before
him. He did not mean to ask their opinion or take their advice, for He is
above that. Allah the Exalted told them that He was going to create a
vicegerant on the earth who would have children and grandchildren who
would corrupt the earth and shed each other's blood. That is why the
angels said to Allah the Almighty: ""Will You place therein those who will
make mischief therein and shed blood!""
Surah 2: 30
There are old
traditions about the angels before the creation of Adam. According to Ibn
Qatadah, it was said that the angels were informed about the creation of
Adam and his progeny by the jinn who lived before Adam. 'Abdullah Ibn
'Umar said that the jinn had existed for about two thousand years before
Adam and then shed blood. Therefore, Allah sent on them an army of angels
that drove them out to the depths of the seas. Ibn Abi Hatim narrated from
Ali Ja'far Al-Baqer that the angels were informed that man would cause
wickedness and shed blood on earth. It was also said that they knew that
no one would be created on earth who would not be wicked and shed
Whether or not these traditions are correct, the angels did
understand that Allah would create a vicegerant on earth. Allah the
Almighty announced that He was going to create a human being out of clay,
that He would mold him and blow His spirit into him, and then the angels
should prostrate before him.
Abi Musa Al-Sha'ara'i narrated that
Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) said: "Allah created Adam from a handful of dust
taken from different lands, so the children of Adam have been created
according to the composition of the land. Therefore, from mankind we have
white, red, black and yellow ones; we have good and evil, ease and sorrow,
and what comes in between them." Sahih Al-Bukhari Ibn Mas'ud and other
companions of the Prophet (PBUH) said that Allah the Almighty sent Gabriel
onto the earth to get Him clay therefrom.
The earth said: "I seek
refuge in Allah from your decreasing my quantity or disfiguring me." So
Gabriel returned and did not take anything. And he said: "My Lord, the
land sought refuge in You, and it was granted." So Allah sent Michael for
the same purpose, and the land sought refuge with Allah and it was
granted. So he went back and said to Allah what Gabriel had said before
him. Then Allah sent the Angel of Death, and the land sought refuge in
Allah. The angel said: "I also seek refuge with Allah from returning
without carrying out His command."
So he took clay from the face of the
earth and mixed it. He did not take from one particular place, but rather
he took white, red, and black clay (from different places). The Angel of
Death ascended with it, and He (Allah) soaked the clay till it became
sticky. Then Allah said to the angels: ""Truly, I am going to create man
from clay. So when I have fashioned him and breathed into him (his) soul
created by Me, then you fall down prostrate to him.""
Surah 38: 71-72
So Allah shaped Adam into a human being, but he remained a figure of
clay for forty years. The angels went past him. They were seized with fear
by what they saw, and Iblis felt this fear most. He used to pass by the
figure of Adam, buffetting it, which would make a sound like pottery.
Allah told us: "He created man (Adam) from sounding clay like the clay of
pottery." Surah 55: 14 When the time drew near to breathe the spirit into
Adam, as Allah the Almighty decreed, He commanded the angels: "When I
breathe My spirit into him prostrate before him" Allah breathed His spirit
into Adam and when it reached his head Adam sneezed. The angels said: "Say
all praise belongs to Allah." Adam repeated: "All praise belongs to
Allah." Allah said to him: "Your Lord has granted you mercy." When the
spirit reached his eyes, Adam looked at the fruits of Paradise.
reached his abdomen Adam felt an appetite for food. He jumped hurriedly
before the spirit could reach his legs, so that he could eat from the
fruits of Paradise. Allah, therefore, said: ""Man is created of haste."
Surah 21:37. And then: "The angels prostrated themselves, all of them
together. Except Iblis - he refused to be among the prostrators. "
Surah 15: 31-32
Abu Hurairah narrated that Prophet Muhammad (PBUH)
said: "Allah created Adam from dust after He mixed the clay and left him
for some time until it became sticky mud, after which Allah shaped him.
After that Allah left him till it became like potter's clay. Iblis used to
go past him saying: 'You have been created for a great purpose.' After
that Allah breathed His spirit into him. The first thing into which the
spirit passed was his eye and then his nose.
He sneezed. Allah said.:
'May your Lord have mercy upon you, O Adam! Go to those angels and see
what they would say.' So Adam went and greeted them. They replied saying:
'Peace be upon you and the mercy and blessings of Allah.' Allah said: 'O
Adam! This is your greeting and that of your offspring." Sahih Al-Bukhari
Allah the Almighty revealed: "And (remember) when you Lord brought forth
from the children of Adam, from their loins, their seed (or from Adam's
loin his offspring) and made them testify as to themselves
"Am I not your Lord?" They said: "Yes! We testify," lest you
should say on the Day of Resurrection: "Verily, we have been unaware of
this." Or lest you should say: "It was only our fathers aforetime who took
others as partners in worship along with Allah, and we were (merely their)
descendants after them; will you then destroy us because of the deeds of
men who practiced Al-Batil (i.e. polytheism and committing crimes and
sins, invoking and worshipping others besides Allah)?" Thus do We explain
the Ayat (proofs, evidences, verses, lessons, signs, revelations, etc.) in
detail, so that they may turn (unto the truth)."
Surah 7: 172- 174
Adam's progeny declared: "Our Lord, we bear witness that You are our
Lord; we have no other Lord but Allah." Allah raised their father Adam,
and he looked at them and saw those of them who were rich, those who were
poor, those who had good forms and those who did not. Adam said: "O Allah!
I wish You to make Your servants equal." Allah replied: "I love being
thanked." Adam saw among the prophets like lamps among his progeny.
Almighty Allah declared: "And (remember) when We took from the Prophets
their covenant, and from you (O Muhammad), and from Noah, Abraham, Moses,
and Jesus-son of Mary. We took from them a strong covenant." Surah 33: 7
In another verse Allah the Exalted commanded: ""
So set you (O
Muhammad) your face towards the religion of pure Islamic Monotheism
Hanifan (worship none but Allah Alone) Allah's Fitrah (i.e. Allah's
Islamic Monotheism), with which He has created mankind. No change let
there be in khalqillah (i.e. the Religion of Allah - Islamic Monotheism),
that is the straight religion, but most men know not."" Surah 30:30
Another version of the story relates that Allah took a handful of the dust
of the earth and mixed into it the colors white, black, yellow, and red.
That is the reason why men are born different colors. When Allah mixed
the dust with water, it turned into potter's clay that makes a sound. It
was fermented and had a smell. Iblis passed by, wondering what was going
to be made of that clay. From the clay Allah created Adam. He molded his
form with His own hands and blew His spirit into him. Adam's body quivered
as life was imbued into it. "Verily, His Command, when He intends a thing,
is only that He says to it, "Be!" - and it is!" Surah 37: 82 Allah the
Almighty declared: "Verily, the likeness of Jesus, in Allah's Sight is the
likeness of Adam.
He created him from dust, then (He) said to him:
"Be!"- and he was." Surah 3: 59 Adam opened his eyes and saw all the
angels prostrating before him except one being who was standing at a
distance. Adam did not know what kind of creature it was that did not
prostrate before him, nor did he know its name. Iblis was standing with
the angels so as to be included in the command given to them, but he was
not one of them.
He was a jinn, and, as such he was supposed to be
inferior to the angels. What is clear is that this prostration was to show
respect and did not mean that the angels were worshiping Adam.
Prostrating, in worship is done only for Allah. Almighty Allah recounted
the story of Iblis's refusal to prostrate before Adam: "And (remember)
when your Lord said to the angels: "I am going to create a man (Adam) from
sounding clay of altered black smooth mud. So, when I have fashioned him
completely and breathed into him (Adam) the soul which I created for him,
then fall (you) down prostrating yourselves unto him" So, the angels
prostrated themselves, all of them together. Except Iblis, - he refused to
be among the prostrators.
(Allah) said: "O Iblis! What is your reason
for not being among the prostrators?" (Iblis) said: "I am not the one to
prostrate myself to a human being, whom You created from sounding clay of
altered black smooth mud." (Allah) said: "Then, get out from here, for
verily, you are Rajim (an outcast or a cursed one). And verily, the curse
shall be upon you till the Day of Recompense (i.e. the Day of
Surah 15: 28-35
In another surah Almighty Allah
recounted it thus: "And surely, We created you (your father Adam) and then
gave you shape (the noble shape of a human being), then We told the
angels, "Prostrate to Adam" and they prostrated, except Iblis, he refused
to be of those who prostrate. (Allah) said: 'What prevented you (O Iblis)
that you did not prostrate, when I commanded you?" Iblis said: "I am
better than him (Adam), You created me from fire, and him You created from
clay." Allah said: "(O Iblis) get down from this (Paradise), it is not for
you to be arrogant here. Get out, for you are of those humiliated and
disgraced." (Iblis) said: "Allow me respite till the Day they are raised
up (i.e. The Day of Resurrection)." Allah said: "You are of those allowed
Surah 7: 11-15
Ibn Jarir reported that Muhammad Ibn
Sirin said that the first one to reach a conclusion by reasoning was Iblis
and that the sun and moon were not worshiped except through this method.
This means that Iblis tried to compare himself to Adam. He believed that
he was more honorable than Adam: Therefore, he abstained from prostrating,
even though Allah had commanded him to do so, just as He had commanded the
angels. If an analogy is made, we see that Iblis is vain. For indeed, clay
is better than fire because in it can be found the qualities of calmness,
clemency, perseverance, and growth; whereas in fire can be found
heedlessness, insignificance, haste, and incineration. Iblis tried in vain
to justify his refusal: ""Shall I prostrate to one whom You created
from clay?" (Iblis) said: "See? This one whom You have honored above me,
if You give me respite (keep me alive) to the Day of Resurrection, I will
surely seize and mislead his offspring (by sending them astray) all but a
few!"" Surah 17: 62 Adam was following what was happening around him and
had feelings of love, awe, and astonishment. Deep love of Allah, Who had
created and glorified him and Who had made His angels prostrate before
him. Awe of the Creator's wrath when He excluded Iblis from His
Adam was surprised by this creature, Iblis, who abhored him
without even knowing him, and who imagined himself better than Adam
without having proved that he was worthier. What a strange creature Iblis
was, and how strange was his excuse for not prostrating! He imagined that
fire is better than clay, but how did he get such an idea? Such knowledge
is exclusive to Allah Who created fire and clay and Who knows which is the
better of the two. From the dialogue Adam realised that Iblis was a
creature characterised by cunning and ingratitude. He then knew that Iblis
was his eternal enemy. He was greatly astonished at Iblis's audacity and
Allah's tolerance. Immediately after his creation, Adam witnessed the
large amount of freedom that Allah gives to His commissioned creatures.
Allah knew that Iblis was not going to obey Him in prostrating before
Adam. Allah could have totally annihilated him or turned him into a
handful of dust or stifled the refusal in his mouth. Yet, Allah gives His
commissioned creatures absolute freedom even to the extent that they can
refuse Allah the Almighty's commands. He grants them the freedom of
denial, disobedience, and even disagreement with Him. His kingdom will not
diminish if the disbelievers do not believe in Him, nor will it be
extended if many people believe in Him.
On the contrary, the
disbelievers will lose, and the believers will gain, but Allah is above
all of that. There were many traditions about Iblis at the time of the
Prophet Muhammad (PBUH). Ibn Mas'ud, Ibn 'Abbas, and a group of the
companions of the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) said that Iblis had been the
head of the angels in the worldly heavens. Ibn 'Abbas said in one
narration that his name had been 'Azazil, and in another narration he said
it had been Al-Harith. Ibn 'Abbas also said that Iblis was a jinn and that
they had once been the keepers of Paradise, with Iblis the most honorable,
the most learned and the most pious of them. Another tradition says that
he had been one of the famous four possessors of wings (i.e.
angels),before Allah transformed him into the accursed Satan. Allah
Almighty recounts Iblis's disobedience in another surah: "(Remember) when
your Lord said to the angels: "Truly, I am going to create man from clay.
So when I have fashioned him and breathed into him (his) soul created by
Me, then you fall down prostrate to him." So the angels prostrated
themselves, all of them: except Iblis, he was proud and was one of the
disbelievers. (Allah) said: "O Iblis! What prevents you from prostrating
yourself to one whom I have created with Both My Hands. Are you too proud
(to fall prostrate to Adam) or are you one of the high exalted?" (Iblis)
said: "I am better than he, You created me from fire, and You created him
from clay." (Allah) said: "Then get you from here, for verily, you are
outcast. And verily!,
My Curse is on you till the Day of Recompense."
(Iblis) said: "My Lord! Give me then respite till the Day the (dead) are
resurrected." Allah said. "Verily! You are of those allowed respite - till
the Day of the time appointed." Iblis said: "By Your Might, then I will
surely mislead them all, - except Your chosen slaves amongst them
(faithful, obedient, true believers of Islamic Monotheism)." (Allah) said:
"The truth is, and the truth I say, - that I will fill Hell with you
(Iblis) and those of them (mankind) that follow you, together. ""
After this lesson about freedom, Adam learned another lesson,
one about knowledge. Adam realized that Iblis was the symbol of evil in
the universe and that the angels were the symbol of good. However, he did
not yet know anything about himself. Then Allah made him perceive his true
identity, the reason for his creation, and the secret of his
glorification. Allah the Exalted said: "And He taught Adam all the names
(of everything)." Surah 2:31 Almighty Allah granted Adam the power to know
the natures of all things and to summarize them by names: that is a bird,
that is a star, that is a tree, that is a cloud, etc. Allah implanted in
Adam an insatiable need for and love of knowledge and a desire to bequeath
knowledge to his children. This was the reason for his creation and the
secret in his glorification. After Adam had learned the names of all
things, along with their properties and uses, Allah presented them to the
angels and said:
""Tell Me the names of these if you are truthful.""
Surah 2:31. The angels admitted their inability: ""Glory be to You, we
have no knowledge except what You have taught us. Verily, it is You, The
All-Knower, The All-Wise. "" Surah 2:32 Allah Almighty then turned to
Adam: ""O Adam! inform them of their names," and when he had informed them
of their names, He said: "Did I not tell you that I know the Ghaib
(unseen) in the heavens and the earth, and I know what you reveal and what
you have been concealing?"
" Surah 2: 33
Allah wanted the angels to
know that He knew of their astonishment when He had told them about the
creation of Adam and that He also knew of their confusion which they had
not revealed, as well as what Iblis had concealed of his disobedience and
ingratitude. The angels realized that Adam was the creature who knew what
they did not know and that his capacity to learn was his noblest quality.
His knowledge included knowledge of the Creator which we call Faith or
Islam, as well as the knowledge he would need to inhabit and master the
earth. All kinds of worldly knowledge which are included in this. Adam
knew the names of everything. Sometimes he talked to the angels, but they
were preoccupied with worshiping Almighty Allah. Therefore, Adam felt
lonely.One day he slept and when he awoke he found, near his head, a
woman gazing at his face with beautiful, tender eyes. Perhaps they had the
following conversation: Adam: You were not here before I slept. She: Yes.
He: From what...? She: I came out of you. Allah created me while you were
asleep. Do you not desire to restore me to you while you are awake? He:
Why has Allah created you? She: To be your solace. He: Thanks to Allah I
was feeling lonely. The angels asked him her name. He replied: "Eve
(Hawwa)." They asked: "Why did you call her Eve?" Adam said: "Because she
was created of me, and I am a living being." Ibn 'Abbas and a group of the
companions of the Prophet (PBUH) narrated that when Iblis was sent out of
Paradise and Adam was accommodated therein, Adam was alone in Paradise and
did not have a partner from whom he could get tranquillity. He slept for
some time and when he woke up, he saw a woman whom Allah had created from
his ribs. So he asked her: "Who are you?"
She replied: "A woman." He
asked: "Why have you been created?" She replied: "So that you could find
tranquillity in me." The angels, trying to find out the extent of his
knowledge, asked him: "What is her name, O Adam?" He replied: "Eve." They
asked: "Why was she so named?" He replied: "Because she was created from
something living." Muhammad Ibn Ishaaq and Ibn 'Abbas related that Eve was
created from the shortest left rib of Adam while he was sleeping, and
after a while she was clothed with flesh. That is why Allah the Exalted
said: "O Mankind! Be dutiful to your Lord, Who created you from a single
person (Adam) and from him (Adam)
He created his wife (Eve), and from
them both He created many men and women." Surah 4:1. Allah also said: "It
is He Who has created you from a single person (Adam), and (then) He
created from him his wife (Eve), in order that he might enjoy the pleasure
of living with her."
Abu Hurairah narrated that the
Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) said: "O Muslims! I advise you to be gentle with
women, for they are created from a rib, and the most crooked portion of
the rib is its upper part. If you try to straighten it, it will break, and
if you leave it, it will remain crooked, so I urge you to take care of the
women." Sahih Al-Bukhari Allah commanded Adam to dwell in Paradise: ""O
Adam! Dwell you and your wife in the Paradise and eat both of you freely
with pleasure and delight of things therein as wherever you will, but come
not near this tree or you both will be of the Zalimeen (wrong-doers).""
Surah 2:35 The location of this Paradise is unknown to us. The Qur'an did
not reveal it, and the commentators had five different opinions.
said that it was the paradise of our refuge and that its place was heaven.
Others negated that statement because if it was the paradise of refuge,
Iblis would have been forbidden admission and disobedience would have been
forbidden as well. Still others said that it was another paradise that was
created by Allah for Adam and Eve. A fourth group said that it was a
paradise on the earth, located in a high place. Another group of
commentators accept what was in the Qur'an without questioning where this
paradise was located,
We agree with this last opinion, as the lesson we
learn from its location is immaterial compared to the lesson we learn from
the events that took place there. Adam and Eve were admitted to Paradise
and there they lived the dream of all human beings. Allah permitted them
to approach and enjoy everything except one tree, that might have been the
Tree of Pain or the Tree of Knowledge. Allah forbade them before they were
given abode in Paradise: ""But come not near this tree or you both will be
of the Zalimeen (wrong-doers).
"" Surah 2: 35
Adam and Eve
understood that they were forbidden to eat the fruit of that tree. Adam
was, however, a human being, and man tends to forget. His heart changes
and his will weakens. Iblis summoned all the envy within him and took
advantage of Adam's humanity to exploit him. He started to whisper to him
day after day, coaxing him: "Shall I guide you to the Tree of Immortality
and the Eternal Kingdom?" And he said to them: "'Your Lord did not forbid
you this tree save you should become angels or become of the immortals."
And he (Satan) swore by Allah to them both (saying): "Verily, lam one of
the sincere well-wishers for you both."".
Surah 7: 20.21
asked himself: "What will happen if I eat from this tree? It might truly
be the Tree of Immortality." His dream was to live forever in the pure
innocence of Paradise. Years went by, and Adam and Eve were preoccupied
with thoughts of that tree. Then, one day, they decided to eat of its
fruit. They forgot that Allah had warned them not to approach it and that
Iblis was their sworn enemy. Adam stretched out his hand, picked one of
the fruits, and offered it to Eve. They both ate of the forbidden tree.
Allah Almighty told us: ""So he [Satan] misled them with deception.""
Surah 7: 22. Allah also said: ""Thus did Adam disobey his Lord, so he went
astray."" Surah 20: 121 According to the Old Testament,
Eve was tempted
by the serpent to eat of the forbidden tree. She ate because of the words
of the serpent and fed Adam some of it. At that moment, their eyes were
opened to the fact that they were naked, and they took the leaves of the
fig tree to cover themselves. Wahb Ibn Munabah said that their clothing
(before their sin) was made of light on the private parts of both of them.
This story in the Old Testament is a falsification and deception.
Allah the Almighty revealed: "O Children of Adam! Let not Satan
deceive you, as he got your parents (Adam and Eve) out of Paradise,
stripping them of their raiments; to show them their private parts. Verily
he and Qabiluhu (his soldiers from the jinn or his tribe) see you from
where you cannot see them. Verily, We made the devils (protectors and
helpers) for those who believe not."" Surah 7: 27 Adam had hardly finished
eating when he felt his heart contract, and he was filled with pain,
sadness, and shame.
The surrounding atmosphere had changed and the
internal music had stopped. He discovered that he and his wife were naked,
so they both started cutting tree leaves with which to cover themselves.
Allah the Almighty addressed him: ""Did I not forbid you that tree and
tell you: Verily, Satan is an open enemy unto you?" They said: "Our Lord!
We have wronged ourselves. If You forgive us not, and bestow not upon us
Your Mercy, we shall certainly be of the losers." (Allah) said: "Get down,
one of you an enemy to the other (i.e., Adam, Eve, and Satan, etc.). On
earth will be a dwelling place for you and an enjoyment, - for a time." He
said: "Therein you shall live, and therein you shall die, and from it you
shall be brought out (i.e. resurrected)."" Surah 7: 22-25 Again there are
old stories about these events. Al-Hafez Ibn 'Asaker narrated that Allah
commanded two angels to remove Adam from His holy proximity. So Gabriel
stripped him of the crown on his head, and Michael took the diadem from
his forehead. Adam thought that his punishment had been hastened and bowed
down crying: "Forgiveness! Forgiveness!"
So Allah asked: "Are you
running away from Me?" Adam replied: "No, my Lord, but I am shy of You."
'Abdul Rahman Ibn 'Amru Al-Awza'iy said that Adam spent one hundred years
in Paradise. In another narration it was said that he spent sixty years.
Ibn 'Asaker reported that Adam wept for sixty years for his loss of
Paradise and seventy years for his mistake, and he wept for another
seventy years when his son was killed. They left Paradise and descended
upon the earth. Adam was sad and Eve was crying. Allah accepted their
repentance because it was sincere, and He told them that the earth
would be their realm and origin where they would live and die and whence
they would come on the Day of Judgment. Allah the Almighty recounted this
third lesson Adam learned in Paradise: "And indeed We made a covenant with
Adam before, but he forgot, and We found on his part no firm will-power.
And (remember) when We said to the angels "Prostrate yourselves to Adam."
They prostrated (all) except Iblis, who refused. Then We said: "O Adam!
Verily, this is an enemy to you and to your wife. So let him not get you
both out of Paradise, so that you be distressed in misery. Verily, you
have (a promise from Us) that you will never be hungry therein nor naked.
And you (will) suffer not from thirst therein nor from the sun's heat."
Then Satan whispered to him, saying: "O Adam! Shall I lead you to the Tree
of Eternity and to a kingdom that will never waste away?"
both ate of the tree, and so their private parts appeared to them, and
they began to stick on themselves the leaves from Paradise for their
covering. Thus did Adam disobey his Lord, so he went astray. Then his Lord
chose him, and turned to him with forgiveness, and gave him guidance.
(Allah) said: "Get you down (upon the earth), both of you, together (from
Paradise), some of you are an enemy to some others. Then if there comes to
you guidance from Me, then whoever follows My Guidance shall neither go
astray, nor fall into distress and misery. But whosoever turns away from
My Reminder (i.e. neither believes in this Qur'an nor acts on its orders,
etc.) verily, for him is a life of hardship, and We shall raise him up
blind on the Day of Resurrection." He will say: "O my Lord! Why have you
raised me up blind, while I had sight (before)."(Allah) will say:
"Like this, Our Ayat (proofs, evidences, verses, lessons, signs,
revelations, etc.) came unto you, but you disregarded them (i.e. you left
them, did not think deeply in them, and you turned away from them), and so
this Day, you will be neglected (in the Hell-Fire, away from Allah's
Mercy)." And thus do We requite him who transgresses beyond bounds [i.e.
commits the great sins and disobeys his Lord (Allah) and believes not in
His Messengers, and His revealed Books, like this Qur'an, etc.], and
believes not in the Ayat (proofs, evidences, verses, lessons, signs,
revelations, etc.) of his Lord, and the torment of the Hereafter is far
more severe and more lasting." Surah 20: 115-127 Some people believe that
the reason why mankind does not dwell in Paradise is that Adam was
disobedient and that if it had not been for this sin, we could have been
there all along.
These are naive fictions because when Almighty Allah
wanted to create Adam, He said to the angels: "I shall make a vicegerant
on the earth." He did not say: "I shall make a vicegerant in Paradise."
Adam's descent on earth, then, was not due to degradation but rather it
was a dignified descent. Allah knew that Adam and Eve would eat of the
tree and descend to earth. He knew that Satan would rape their innocence.
That experience was essential for their life on earth; it was a
cornerstone of their vicegerency. It was meant to teach Adam, Eve, and
their progeny that it was Satan who had caused them to be expelled from
Paradise and that the road to Paradise can only be reached by obedience to
Allah and enmity to Satan. Could it be said that Adam and the rest of
mankind were predestined to sin and to be expelled from Paradise and sent
to the earth? In fact, this fiction is as naive as the first one. Adam had
complete free will, and he bore the consequences of his deed. He disobeyed
by eating of the forbidden tree, so Allah dismissed him from Paradise. His
disobedience does not negate his freedom. On the contrary, it is a
consequence of it. The truth of the matter is that Allah knew what was
going to happen, as He always knows the outcome of events before they take
place. However, Allah does not force things to happen. He grants free will
to His human creatures. On that He bases His supreme wisdom in populating
the earth, establishing the vicegerents, and so on. Adam understood his
third lesson. He knew now in a practical way that Iblis was his enemy, the
cause of his losing the blessing of living in Paradise, and the cause of
his distress. Adam also understood that Allah punishes disobedience and
that the way to Paradise has to be through submission to the will of
Allah. And he learned from Almighty Allah to ask for forgiveness. Allah
accepted Adam's repentance and forgave him. He then sent him to the earth
as His first messenger. Abu Hurairah narrated that Allah's Messenger
(PBUH) said: "Adam and Moses argued with each other. Moses said to Adam:
'Your sin expelled you from Paradise.' Adam said to him: 'You are Moses
whom Allah selected as His messenger and as the one to whom He spoke
directly. Yet you blame me for a thing which had already been written in
my fate before my Creation?" Allah's Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) said twice:
So, Adam outclassed Moses." Sahih M. Bukhari." Sahih Al-Bukhari 'Umar
Ibn Al-Khattab also narrated that Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) said: "Moses
(PBUH) said: 'My Lord! May I see Adam who removed us and himself from the
Paradise?' So Allah made him see Adam, and he said to him: 'Are you Adam?'
Adam said: 'Yes.' And he said: 'Were you the one in whom Allah breathed
His spirit, and before whom He bowed His angels, and to whom He taught
the names of all things?' Adam answered: 'Yes.' So Moses said: 'What made
you remove us and yourself from Paradise?' Adam said unto him: 'Who are
you?' He said: 'I am Moses.' Adam said: 'So you are Moses the prophet of
the Children of Israel. Were you the one Allah spoke to directly?' Moses
answered: 'Yes.' Adam said: 'Why do you blame me for a matter which Allah
had predestined?" So Allah's Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) said twice. "Adam
outclassed Moses." Sahih Al-Bukhari There are many traditions concerning
the place of Adam's descent upon earth. Ibn Abi Hatim narrated that Ibn
'Abbas said: "Adam descended on land called 'Dihna' between Mecca (Makkah)
and Taif." Al-Hassan said that Adam descended in India, Eve in Jeddah
(Saudi Arabia), Iblis in Bodistiman (Iraq),and the serpent in Ashahan
(Iran). This was also reported by Ibn Hatim. Ass'ady related that Adam
descended with the Black Stone in India, and he had a handful of the seeds
of Paradise. He sowed them in India and they grew into the fragrant tree
therein. Ibn 'Umar said that Adam descended on As-Safa and Eve on
Al-Marwa. This was also reported by Ibn Hatim. 'Abdul-Razzaq reported that
Abi Musa Al-Sh'ari said that when Allah ordered Adam to descend from
Paradise to earth, He taught him the making of everything and provided him
with the crops from Paradise. Abu Hurairah narrated that Prophet Muhammad
"The best of days on which the sun has risen is Friday.
On this day Adam was created, and on this day he was descended to earth."
Adam knew he bade farewell to peace when he left Paradise. On earth he had
to face conflict and struggle. No sooner had one ended than another began.
He also had to toil to sustain himself. He had to protect himself with
clothes and weapons and protect his wife and children from the wild
beasts. Above all, he had to struggle with the spirit of evil. Satan, the
cause of his expulsion from Paradise, continued to beguile him and his
children in an effort to have them thrown into the eternal hellfire.
The battle between good and evil is continuous, but those who follow
Allah's guidance should fear nothing, while those who disobey Allah and
follow Iblis will be damned along with him. Adam grasped all of this, and,
with the knowledge of this suffering, he started his life on the earth.
The only thing that allayed his grief was that he was master of the earth
and had to make it yield to him. He was the one who had to perpetuate,
cultivate, construct and populate the earth. He was also the one who had
to procreate and raise children who would change and improve the world.
The pinnacle of earthly bliss was reached when Adam and Eve witnessed the
birth of their first children, a set of twins. Adam was a devoted father
and Eve a contented mother. The twins were Cain (Qabil) and his sister.
Later Eve gave birth to a second set of twins, Abel (Habil) and his
sister. The family enjoyed the bounties and fruits of the earth provided
by their Lord. The children grew up to be strong and healthy young adults.
Cain tilled the land, while Abel raised cattle. The time arrived when the
two young men desired life partners. This was part of Allah's plan for
mankind, to multiply and form nations with different cultures and colors.
Allah revealed to Adam that he should marry each son to the twin sister of
the other. Adam instructed his children according to Allah's command, but
Cain was displeased with the partner chosen for him, for Abel's
twin-sister was not as beautiful as his own. It appears that since the
beginning of time, physical beauty has been a factor in the attraction
between men and women. This attraction caused Cain to envy his brother
He rebelled against Allah's command by refusing to accept his
father's advice: At first glance Cain's rebellion might appear strange,
but we should remember that, although man has a pure nature, the potential
for dichotomy exists. In other words, he has both good and bad qualities:
He can become greedy, covetous, possessive, selfish and even destructive.
Man is, therefore, capable of seeking self-satisfaction even if it leads
to failure in this life and in the hereafter. The path to goodness lies in
harnessing the enemy within him, his baser self, by controlling evil
thoughts and deeds and practising moderation in his desires and actions.
His reward then will be the delights of this world and the hereafter.
Thus Allah tests us through our divided nature. Adam was in a dilemma.
He wanted peace and harmony in his family, so he invoked Allah for help.
Allah commanded that each son offer a sacrifice, and he whose offering was
accepted would have right on his side. Abel offered his best camel, while
Cain offered his worst grain. His sacrifice was not accepted by Allah
because of his disobedience to his father and the insincerity in his
offering. This enraged Cain even further. Realising that his hopes of
marrying his own beautiful sister were fading, he threatened his brother:
"I will kill you! I refuse to see you happy while I remain unhappy!" Abel,
feeling sorry for his brother, replied: "It would be more proper for you,
my brother, to search for the cause of your unhappiness and then walk in
the way of peace.
Allah accepts deeds only from those who serve and
fear Him, not from those who reject His commands." Abel was intelligent,
obedient, and always ready to obey the will of Allah. This contrasted
sharply with his brother, who was arrogant, selfish and disobedient to his
Lord. Abel did not fear his brother's threats, but neither did he want his
brother to be hurt. Allah had blessed Abel with purity and compassion.
Hoping to allay the hatred seething in his brother, Abel said: "My
brother, you are deviating from the right path and are sinful in your
decisions. It is better that you repent to Allah and forget about your
foolish threat. But if you do not, then I will leave the matter in the
hands of Allah. You alone will bear the consequence of your sin, for the
Fire is the reward of the wrong-doers" This brotherly plea did nothing to
lessen the hatred in Cain's heart, nor did he show fear of Allah's
Even familial considerations were cast aside. Cain struck
his brother with a stone, killing him instantly. This was the first death
and the first criminal act committed by man on earth. When Abel had not
appeared for some time, Adam began to search for him but found no trace of
his beloved son. He asked Cain about Abel's whereabouts. Cain insolently
replied that he was not his brother's keeper nor his protector. From these
words his father understood that Abel was dead and Adam was filled with
Cain did not know what to do with his brother's
corpse. He carried it on his back wandering from place to place, trying to
hide it. His anger had now subsided, and his conscience was saddled with
guilt. He was tiring under the burden of the corpse which had started to
have a stench. As a mercy, and to show that dignity could be retained even
in death, Allah sent two ravens that began fighting, causing the death of
one. The victorious bird used its beak and claws to dig a hole in the
ground, rolled its victim into it and covered it with sand. Witnessing
this, Cain was overcome with shame and remorse. "Woe unto me!" he
exclaimed. "I was unable to do what this raven has done, that is to hide
my brother's corpse." Cain then buried his brother. This was also the
first burial of man. Allah the Almighty revealed:
"And (O Muhammad) recite to them (the Jews) the story of the two sons
of Adam (Abel and Cain - Habil and Qabil respectively] in truth; when each
offered a sacrifice (to Allah), it was accepted from the one but not from
the other. The latter said to the former: "I will surely kill you." The
former said: 'Verily, Allah accepts only from those who are Al-Muttaqeen
(the pious). If you do stretch your hand against me to kill me, I shall
never stretch my hand against you to kill you, for I fear Allah; the Lord
of the 'Alamin (mankind, jinn, and all that exists). Verily I intend to
let you draw my sin on yourself as well as yours, then you will be one of
the dwellers of the Fire, and that is the recompense of the Zalimeen
(polytheists, and wrong-doers)." So the Nafs (self) of the other (latter
one) encouraged him and made fair-seeming to him the murder of his
brother; he murdered him and became one of the losers.
Then Allah sent
a crow who scratched the ground to show him to hide the dead body of his
brother. He (the murderer) said: 'Woe to me! Am I not even able to be as
this crow and to hide the dead body of my brother?" Then he became one of
those who regretted." Surah 5: 27-31 Ibn 'Abbas, Ibn Mas'ud and a group of
the companions of the Prophet (PBUH) related that inter-marriage of the
male of one pregnancy with the female of another had been in practice
among Adam's children. Abel wanted to marry Cain's sister, but Cain wanted
her for himself because she was very beautiful. Adam ordered him to give
her in marriage to his brother, but he refused. So Adam ordered both of
them to offer a sacrifice, then went to Mecca (Makkah) to perform the
pilgrimage. After Adam had left, they offered their sacrifices: Abel
offered a fat lamb - he was a shepherd - while Cain offered a bundle of
the worst grain.
A fire descended and devoured Abel's sacrifice,
leaving that of Cain, so he became angry and said: "I will surely kill you
so that you will not marry my sister." Abel replied: "Allah accepts from
those who fear Him." According to Abu Ja'afar Al-Baqer, Adam was watching
their offering and was sure that Abel's sacrifice would be accepted. Cain
complained to Adam that the acceptance was due to his supplication for
Abel and that he had not done the same for him, so he promised his father
to settle the matter between himself and his brother. One night, Abel was
late returning from tending his flock. Adam sent Cain to see what had
happened to him. When he found him, he glared at him saying: "Yours was
accepted, and mine was not." Abel replied: "Allah only accepts from the
Allah-fearing." Cain became angry on hearing this and hit him with a piece
of iron that was with him, thus killing him. In another version it was
said that he killed him with a rock to the head while he was sleeping.
Adam was utterly grief-stricken by the loss of his two sons: one was dead,
the other was won over by the devil.
Adam prayed for his son and turned
to mundane matters, for he had to toil for his sustenance. At the same
time, he was a prophet, advising his children and grandchildren, telling
them about Allah, and calling them to believe in Him. He told them about
Iblis and warned them by recounting his own experience with the devil and
of how the devil had tempted Cain to kill his brother. Years and years
passed, Adam grew old, and his children spread all over the earth.
Muhammad Ibn Ishaq related: that when Adam's death drew near, he appointed
his son Seth (Shiith) to be his successor, and taught him the hours of the
day and night along with their appropriate acts of worship. He also
foretold to him the flood that would come.
Abu Dhar narrated that
Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) said: "Allah sent down one hundred four psalms, of
which fifty were sent down to Seth." 'Abdullah Ibn Al-Iman Ahmad Ibn
Hanbal narrated that Ubai Ibn Ka'b said: "When Adam's death was near, he
said to his children: 'O my children, indeed, I feel an appetite for the
fruits of Paradise.' So they went away searching for what Adam had
requested. They met with the angels, who had with them his shroud and what
he was to be embalmed with. They said to them: 'O Children of Adam, what
are you searching for? What do you want? Where are you going?' They said:
'Our father is sick and has an appetite for the fruits of Paradise.' The
angels said to them:
'Go back, for your father is going to meet his
end soon.' So they returned (with the angels), and when Eve saw them she
recognised them. She tried to hide herself behind Adam. He said to her:
'Leave me alone. I came before you; do not go between me and the angels of
my Lord.' So they took his soul, embalmed and wrapped him, dug the grave
and laid him in it. They prayed on him and put him in his grave, saying:
'O Children of Adam, this is your tradition at the time of death." Before
his death Adam reassured his children that Allah would not leave man alone
on the earth, but would send His prophets to guide them.
would have different names, traits and miracles, but they would be united
in one thing: the call to worship. Allah alone. This was Adam's bequest to
his children. Adam finished speaking and closed his eyes. Then the angels
entered his room and surrounded him: When he recognised the Angel of Death
among them, his heart smiled peacefully. After Adam's death, his son Seth
(Shiith) took over the responsibilities of Prophethood, according to a
hadith narrated by Abu Dhar. Abu Dhar also narrated that Prophet Muhammad
"Allah sent down one hundred four psalms, of which fifty
were sent down to Seth." Sahih Al-Bukhari. When the time of his death
came, Seth's son Anoush succeeded him: He in turn, was succeeded by his
son Qinan, who was succeeded by his son Mahlabeel. The Persians claim that
Mahlabeel was the King of the Seven Regions, that he was the first one to
cut down trees to build cities and large forts and that he built the
cities of Babylonia. He reigned for a period of forty years. When he died
his duties were taken over by his son Yard, who on his death, bequeathed
them to his son Khonoukh, who is Idris (PBUH) according to the majority